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The first critical biography of Alexander Campbell, one of the founders of the Stone-Campbell Movement . Both kings were murdered, Arrhidaeus in 317 and Alexander in 310/309. There was an open mutiny involving all but the royal bodyguard; but when Alexander dismissed his whole army and enrolled Persians instead, the opposition broke down. Intelligence on both sides was faulty, and Alexander was already encamped by Myriandrus (near modern Ä°skenderun, Turkey) when he learned that Darius was astride his line of communications at Issus, north of Alexander’s position (autumn 333). To this end, at Susa he commanded that a large number of Macedonians marry Persian princesses. His advance eastward was now rapid. At Memphis Alexander sacrificed to Apis, the Greek term for Hapi, the sacred Egyptian bull, and was crowned with the traditional double crown of the pharaohs; the native priests were placated and their religion encouraged. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. There he broke the opposition of the Scythian nomads by his use of catapults and, after defeating them in a battle on the north bank of the river, pursued them into the interior. From Alexandria he marched along the coast to Paraetonium and from there inland to visit the celebrated oracle of the god Amon (at SÄ«wah); the difficult journey was later embroidered with flattering legends. Parmenio was also left behind in Media to control communications; the presence of this older man had perhaps become irksome. In 338, Alexander took charge of the Companion Cavalry and aided his father in defeating the Athenian and Theban armies at Chaeronea. In reconciliation Alexander married her, and the rest of his opponents were either won over or crushed. The Life of Alexander the Great is one of the fi rst surviving attempts to memorialize the achievements of this legendary king, remembered today as the greatest military genius of all time. Alexander’s second in command was Parmenio, who had secured a foothold in Asia Minor during Philip’s lifetime; many of his family and supporters were entrenched in positions of responsibility. Alexander thus underlined his Panhellenic policy, already symbolized in the sending of 300 panoplies (sets of armour) taken at the Granicus as an offering dedicated to Athena at Athens by “Alexander son of Philip and the Greeks (except the Spartans) from the barbarians who inhabit Asia.” (This formula, cited by the Greek historian Arrian in his history of Alexander’s campaigns, is noteworthy for its omission of any reference to Macedonia.) Rathbone Professor Emeritus of Ancient History and Classical Archaeology, University of Liverpool. Darius’s Greek mercenaries were largely massacred, but 2,000 survivors were sent back to Macedonia in chains. Listen on Apple Podcasts. At Phrada in Drangiana (either near modern Nad-e Ê¿Ali in Seistan or farther north at Farah), he at last took steps to destroy Parmenio and his family. He was just 32 years old. A tale of a castaway, shipwrecked and marooned on an island, facing natives, cannibals, and pirates to survive. Turning, Alexander found Darius drawn up along the Pinarus River. His intimidation tactic proved effective; the other Greek city-states, including Athens, chose to pledge their alliance to the Macedonian Empire or opted to remain neutral. Although Olympia served as a powerful role model for the boy, Alexander grew to resent his father's absence and philandering. Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule. ALEXANDER POPE, English poet, was born in Lombard Street, London, on the 21st of May 1688.His father, Alexander Pope, a Roman Catholic, was a linen-draper who afterwards retired from business with a small fortune, and fixed his residence about 1700 at … Before continuing his pursuit of Darius, who had retreated into Bactria, he assembled all the Persian treasure and entrusted it to Harpalus, who was to hold it at Ecbatana as chief treasurer. Alexander sent his body for burial with due honours in the royal tombs at Persepolis. Once Philip II had succeeded in his campaign to unite all the Greek states (minus Sparta) into the Corinthian League, the alliance between father and son soon disintegrated. The event marked a step in Alexander’s progress toward Eastern absolutism, and this growing attitude found its outward expression in his use of Persian royal dress. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. We know that Alexander married at least three women during his short life: Roxane, Stateira, and Parysatis. Macedonian garrisons were left in Corinth, Chalcis, and the Cadmea (the citadel of Thebes). Egypt, Babylonia, Persis, Media, Bactria, the Punjab, and the valley of the Indus.In the second half of his reign, he had to find a way to rule his newly conquered countries. His advance through Swāt and Gandhāra was marked by the storming of the almost impregnable pinnacle of Aornos, the modern Pir-Sar, a few miles west of the Indus and north of the Buner River, an impressive feat of siegecraft. While considering the conquests of Carthage and Rome, Alexander died of malaria in Babylon (now Iraq), on June 13, 323 B.C. Seeing that Homer's Iliad inspired Alexander to dream of becoming a heroic warrior, Aristotle created an abridged version of the tome for Alexander to carry with him on military campaigns. Leaving Porus, he then proceeded down the river and into the Indus, with half his forces on shipboard and half marching in three columns down the two banks. After a skirmish near modern ShāhrÅ«d, the usurper had Darius stabbed and left him to die. After conquering cities, Alexander the Great would name them after himself. He planned to lead part of his forces back by land, while the rest in perhaps 100 to 150 ships under the command of Nearchus, a Cretan with naval experience, made a voyage of exploration along the Persian Gulf. While the siege of Tyre was in progress, Darius sent a new offer: he would pay a huge ransom of 10,000 talents for his family and cede all his lands west of the Euphrates. https://www.biography.com/political-figure/alexander-the-great. It was probably in connection with a general order now sent out to the Greeks to honour Hephaestion as a hero that Alexander linked the demand that he himself should be accorded divine honours. Alexander (1869-1955) was an Australian actor who began to experience chronic laryngitis whenever he performed. Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, served as empress of Russia for more than three decades in the late 18th century after overthrowing her husband, Peter III. From Maracanda (modern Samarkand) Alexander advanced by way of Cyropolis to the Jaxartes (modern Syrdarya), the boundary of the Persian empire. Even Callisthenes, historian and nephew of Aristotle, whose ostentatious flattery had perhaps encouraged Alexander to see himself in the role of a god, refused to abase himself. In early summer 327 Alexander left Bactria with a reinforced army under a reorganized command. In Aria he reduced Satibarzanes, who had offered submission only to revolt, and he founded Alexandria of the Arians (modern Herāt). Ever a loyal mother, Olympia further ensured her son's claim to the throne by slaughtering the daughter of King Philip II and Cleopatra and driving Cleopatra herself to suicide. One of the world’s greatest military generals, he created a vast empire that stretched from Macedonia to Egypt and from Greece to part of India. The following spring at Babylon he received complimentary embassies from the Libyans and from the Bruttians, Etruscans, and Lucanians of Italy; but the story that embassies also came from more distant peoples, such as Carthaginians, Celts, Iberians, and even Romans, is a later invention. He had not been aware that excess tension in his neck and body were causing his problems, and began to find new ways to speak and move with greater … Moreover, he needed the wealth of Persia if he was to maintain the army built by Philip and pay off the 500 talents he owed. After visiting Ilium (Troy), a romantic gesture inspired by Homer, he confronted his first Persian army, led by three satraps, at the Granicus (modern Kocabaş) River, near the Sea of Marmara (May/June 334). In winter 334–333 Alexander conquered western Asia Minor, subduing the hill tribes of Lycia and Pisidia, and in spring 333 he advanced along the coastal road to Perga, passing the cliffs of Mount Climax, thanks to a fortunate change of wind. Macedonian laughter caused the experiment to founder, and Alexander abandoned it. But, before preparing for war with Persia, Alexander first conquered the Thracian Triballians in 335, securing Macedonia's northern borders. Compre o livro The Life of Alexander Alexander; In Two Volumes na Amazon.com.br: confira as ofertas para livros em inglês e importados It took Alexander until the autumn of 328 to crush the most determined opponent he encountered in his campaigns. He also created a wide range of monumental metal sculptures that have become practically inextricable from the cities and … Hang out with Ray & Cam and you can win merch from the show! Local opposition led Nearchus to set sail in September (325), and he was held up for three weeks until he could pick up the northeast monsoon in late October. He murdered Cleitus, one of his most-trusted commanders, in a drunken quarrel, but his excessive display of remorse led the army to pass a decree convicting Cleitus posthumously of treason. The Companion cavalry was reorganized in two sections, each containing four squadrons (now known as hipparchies); one group was commanded by Alexander’s oldest friend, Hephaestion, the other by Cleitus, an older man. This exclusive Modern Library edition, excerpted from Plutarch's Lives, is a riveting tale of honor, power, scandal, and bravery written by the most eminent biographer of … EMBED. The king also ordered his subjects to sacrifice to Hephaestion as if he were a demigod. Instead of taking the direct route down the river to Babylon, he made across northern Mesopotamia toward the Tigris, and Darius, learning of this move from an advance force sent under Mazaeus to the Euphrates crossing, marched up the Tigris to oppose him. Updates? Alexander inherited a most of this forthcoming his father’s death (History.com).He was almost immediately made king and he inherited the already growing empire.Alexander also gained a lot of land when he was alive.This was mainly due to him never losing a battle and gaining quite a … How far the rigour that from now onward Alexander displayed against his governors represents exemplary punishment for gross maladministration during his absence and how far the elimination of men he had come to distrust (as in the case of Philotas and Parmenio) is debatable; but the ancient sources generally favourable to him comment adversely on his severity. Crushing the mountain tribe of the Ouxians, he now pressed on over the Zagros range into Persia proper and, successfully turning the Pass of the Persian Gates, held by the satrap Ariobarzanes, he entered Persepolis and Pasargadae. From age 13 to 16 he was taught by Aristotle, who inspired him with an interest in philosophy, medicine, and scientific investigation, but he was later to advance beyond his teacher’s narrow precept that non-Greeks should be treated as slaves. Author of. Alexander the Great leading his forces against the retreating Persian army led by Darius III at the Battle of Issus in 333. Alexander then faced Persian King Darius III's army near the Grancius River; Darius' forces were swiftly defeated. By fall, Alexander and his army had made it across the southern coast of Asia Minor to Gordium, where they took the winter to rest. In Sura 18 in the Koran (and many other texts), Alexander searches for the Water of Life, akin to the Fountain of Youth, but the water looked forward to life, not backward to youth. Mosaic of Alexander the Great discovered in the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy. In spring 330 Alexander marched north into Media and occupied its capital. In 343 B.C., King Philip II hired the philosopher Aristotle to tutor Alexander at the Temple of the Nymphs at Meiza. Compre o livro The Life Of Alexander Alexander: In Two Volumes, Volume 2 de Alexander Alexander e John Howell em Bertrand.pt. Alexander and Olympia were forced to flee Macedonia and stay with Olympia's family in Epirus until Alexander and King Philip II were able to reconcile their differences. Fearing a revolt among the other city-states, Alexander leapt into action, marching his massive army—consisting of 3,000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry—southward all the way to the tip of the Greek peninsula. By the fall of 336, he reissued treaties with the Greek city-states that belonged to the Corinthian League — with Athens still refusing membership — and was granted full military power in the campaign against the Persian Empire. Alexander's personal life was complicated. Conquest was Alexander's main–and perhaps only–ambition. Oscar Hammerstein II collaborated with Richard Rodgers on popular musicals such as ‘Oklahoma!,’ ‘South Pacific,’ ‘Carousel,’ ‘The King and I’ and ‘The Sound of Music.’. He was born in 356 bce at Pella in Macedonia, the son of Philip II and Olympias (daughter of King Neoptolemus of Epirus). On the site of modern Leninabad (Khojent) on the Jaxartes, he founded a city, Alexandria Eschate, “the farthest.” Meanwhile, Spitamenes had raised all Sogdiana in revolt behind him, bringing in the Massagetai, a people of the Shaka confederacy. In the winter of 324 Alexander carried out a savage punitive expedition against the Cossaeans in the hills of Luristan. Alexander forged eastward to the Ganges but headed back when his armies refused to advance any farther. His empire spread from Gibraltar to the Punjab, and he made Greek the lingua franca of his world, the … Before this could be ruthless and impulsive, Alexander became known for his on! 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